Signals and Boundaries – Building Blocks for Complex Adaptive Systems

John H. Holland

MIT Press (2012) ISBN:0262017830 9780262017831

Complex adaptive systems are strictly connected with collective adaptive systems, and they can be ecosystems, governments, biological cells, and markets. The author points out that all these systems are characterized by hierarchical arrangements of boundaries and signals, and claims that understanding the origin of the intricate signal/border hierarchies of these systems is the key to steer them.. This is an interesting point of view about the fundamentals of adaptive systems.